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PNF Preventive Nutrition and Food Science

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ISSN 2287-8602
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Review

Article

Review

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2021; 26(3): 241-261

Published online September 30, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2021.26.3.241

Copyright © The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.

Carotenoids: Therapeutic Strategy in the Battle against Viral Emerging Diseases, COVID-19: An Overview

Ayman Khalil1 , Diana Tazeddinova1 , Khaled Aljoumaa1 , Zhumayeva Araigul Kazhmukhanbetkyzy2 , Ayan Orazov2 , and Abduvali Djabarovich Toshev1

1Department of Food technology, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk 454080, Russian Federation
2Higher School of Technologies of Food and Processing Productions, Zhangir Khan University, Uralsk 090009, The Republic of Kazakhstan

Correspondence to:Ayman Khalil, Tel: +7-351-267-99-00, E-mail: khalilayman77@gmail.com

Received: May 3, 2021; Revised: June 24, 2021; Accepted: June 25, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Carotenoids, a group of phytochemicals, are naturally found in the Plant kingdom, particularly in fruits, vegetables, and algae. There are more than 600 types of carotenoids, some of which are thought to prevent disease, mainly through their antioxidant properties. Carotenoids exhibit several biological and pharmaceutical benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immunity booster properties, particularly as some carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A in the body. However, humans cannot synthesize carotenoids and need to obtain them from their diets or via supplementation. The emerging zoonotic virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originated in bats, and was transmitted to humans. COVID-19 continues to cause devastating international health problems worldwide. Therefore, natural preventive therapeutic strategies from bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, should be appraised for strengthening physiological functions against emerging viruses. This review summarizes the most important carotenoids for human health and enhancing immunity, and their potential role in COVID-19 and its related symptoms. In conclusion, promising roles of carotenoids as treatments against emerging disease and related symptoms are highlighted, most of which have been heavily premeditated in studies conducted on several viral infections, including COVID-19. Further in vitro and in vivo research is required before carotenoids can be considered as potent drugs against such emerging diseases.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antiviral agents, carotenoids, COVID-19