Black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger), which is cultivated worldwide, is used in traditional medicine as it aids liver function, gastric secretion, gallbladder function, and gallstone mitigation. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of black radish extract (BRE) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interleukin (IL)-6-mediated inflammatory responses in the RAW 264.7 cell lines. Our findings show that BRE significantly ameliorated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and prostaglandin E2. The levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were found to be suppressed by BRE. Further, BRE significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of mRNAs encoding COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in a concentration-dependent manner. BRE treatment significantly inhibited Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in IL-6- and LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, BRE decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinase under the same conditions. Moreover, BRE induced high nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) levels and its target gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the absence of LPS. These data demonstrate that BRE may be beneficial for treating inflammation through selective immunomodulatory effects, which may be mediated by inhibition of the STAT3/JAK2 and activation of the NRF2/HO-1 signal transduction pathways.
anti-inflammatory effects, black radish, JAK2/STAT3, LPS/IL-6, NRF2