Stauntonia hexaphylla (Thunb.) Decaisne and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. are commonly used in traditional herbal medicine and food and both exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Herein, hot-water extracts of Stauntonia hexaphylla (Thunb.) Decaisne and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. fruits (1:1 mixture) were used to produce a complex extract NET-1601. The anti-fatigue activity of NET-1601 was evaluated in an in vitro oxidative stress model induced by treating C2C12 myotubes with H2O2. An exhaustive swimming test (EST) in vivo model was established using ICR mice. NET-1601-treated C2C12 myotubes (50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) with H2O2-induced oxidative stress displayed significantly increased cell viability and ATP content, but significantly decreased levels of reactive oxygen species. All NET-1601-treated EST models demonstrated significantly higher maximum swimming rates than control mice. Furthermore, serum lactate, lactate dehydrogenase activity, non-esterified fatty acid, and intramuscular glycogen levels were higher in NET-1601- treated mice than in control mice. In addition, mRNA levels of regulatory factors involved in muscle mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation increased upon NET-1601 treatment. Moreover, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and liver glutathione content, and antioxidant activity were higher in NET-1601-treated mice than in control mice. Reduced malondialdehyde levels indicated that NET-1601 treatment inhibited exercise-induced lipid peroxidation. Together, these results suggest that NET-1601 retains antioxidant enzyme activity during oxidative stress, simultaneously enhancing both muscle function via glycogen and fatty acid oxidation, thereby exerting a positive effect on recovery from fatigue.
anti-fatigue activity, exhaustive swimming test, oxidative stress, Stauntonia hexaphylla (Thunb.) Decaisne, Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.